Photography is the art, science and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film, or electronically by means of an image sensor. Typically, a lens is used to focus the light reflected or emitted from objects into a real image on the light-sensitive surface inside a camera during a timed exposure. The result in an electronic image sensor is an electrical charge at each pixel, which is electronically processed and stored in a digital image file for subsequent display or processing. –Wiki
Film vs. Digital
Film is the original and debatably the best format. As a photographer, film forces me to be more artistic seeing as you pay for every shot and are limited to about 12 to 35 takes depending on the camera and format. Also, you can’t review or preview your photos making you think and be patient. Film is usually more dynamic giving more headroom making it more forgiving of under and over exposures. While being developed, exposure can be pushed as well as when being enlarged. This makes film further artistic by giving you the chance to make more or less improvements in development, or possibly even ruin your roll. You can have many different formats giving film a playing field that digital can’t compete with. The standard is 35mm for both, but digital cap off at 120mm medium format. Film is virtually unlimited but large format cameras are 4×5 and 8×10 inch.
Digital by far has more advantages but even with today’s technology its debatable on which is superior. Without having rolls a film to worry about you can shoot continually no problem which makes this ideal for sport and bird photography. This also gives you the advantage by seeing what your photo looks like before you take it. Furthermore, you can have advanced analyzing of what the sensor is receiving with histograms and vectorscopes. One big thing to always watch out for is the white balance, if this isn’t set correctly your photos can be ruined. What I find is the biggest advantage on-site is changing ISO on the fly and for post is being able (on most all DSLRs) to shoot RAW. RAW images are an uncompressed and unprocessed. Raw also stores the information about almost everything of the photo and lets you change the white balance in post. The biggest disadvantage is initial cost of the camera. The better or bigger you want your image or the more features, the more expensive.
Types of Photography by location:
Nature photography refers to a wide range of photography taken outdoors and devoted to displaying natural elements such as landscapes, wildlife, plants, and close-ups of natural scenes and textures. Nature photography tends to put a stronger emphasis on the aesthetic value of the photo than other photography genres, such as photojournalism and documentary photography.
Nature photographs are published in scientific, travel and cultural magazines such as National Geographic Magazine, National Wildlife Magazine and Audubon Magazine or other more specific magazines such as Outdoor Photographer and Nature’s Best Photography. Well known nature photographers include Frans Lanting, Galen Rowell, Eliot Porter and Art Wolfe. –Wiki
Candid photography is captured through motion mostly, without creating a posed appearance. This is achieved by avoiding prior preparation of the subject and by either surprising the subject or by not distracting the subject during the process of taking photos. Thus, the candid character of a photo is regardless of the subject’s knowledge or consent as to the fact that photos are being taken, and regardless of the subject’s permission for subsequent usage such as distribution, but related to the apparent absence of posing. It is distinguished from making secret photography by the photographer usually remaining discernible to the public and not wearing cover. –Wiki
Landscape photography shows spaces within the world, sometimes vast and unending, but other times microscopic. Photographs typically capture the presence of nature but can also focus on man-made features or disturbances of landscapes.
Many landscape photographs show little or no human activity and are created in the pursuit of a pure, unsullied depiction of nature devoid of human influence, instead featuring subjects such as strongly defined landforms, weather, and ambient light. As with most forms of art, the definition of a landscape photograph is broad, and may include urban settings, industrial areas, and nature photography. Notable landscape photographers include Ansel Adams, Fred Judge F.R.P.S. photographer of Judges Postcards,Galen Rowell, Edward Weston, Ben Heine and Mark Gray. –Wiki
Astrophotography is a specialized type of photography for recording images of astronomical objects and large areas of the night sky. The first photograph of an astronomical object (the Moon) was taken in 1840, but it was not until the late 19th century that advances in technology allowed for detailed stellar photography. Besides being able to record the details of extended objects such as the Moon, Sun, and planets, astrophotography has the ability to image objects invisible to the human eye such as dim stars, nebulae, and galaxies. This is done by long time exposure since both film and digital cameras can accumulate and sum light photons over these long periods of time. In professional astronomical research, photography revolutionized the field, with long time exposures recording hundreds of thousands of new stars and nebulae that were invisible to the human eye, leading to specialized and ever larger optical telescopes that were essentially big “cameras” designed to collect light to be recorded on film. Direct astrophotography had an early role in sky surveys and star classification but over time it has given way to more sophisticated equipment and techniques designed for specific fields of scientific research, with film (and later astronomical CCD cameras) becoming just one of many forms of sensor. –Wiki
Low light flash-less photography is all about capturing photos without the overbearing contrast or without distracting others with a bright flash. In doing this, you need to deal with higher ISO which gives a lot of grain or noise.
This can be achieved better with a great digital camera that excels in low light or by just using film.
Single flash photography is using one small flash on-the-go in low light. This limits you to what you can do and forces your to be cleaver and artistic. You have a constant struggle with highlights and lowlights. There are a few options to work with like diffusers, ring lights, or removing the flash from the hot-shoe and holding it off to the side in the other hand with a wireless trigger.
Food photography is a still life specialization of commercial photography, aimed at producing attractive photographs of food for use in advertisements, packaging, menus or cookbooks. Professional food photography is a collaborative effort, usually involving an art director, a photographer, a food stylist, a prop stylist and their assistants. –Wiki
Real estate photography often never uses a flash and fights against the outside light. To overcome this you can use a HDR technique or High Dynamic Range which takes 2 or 3 photos at different ISO and composites them together in post as in the photo shown here. This requires the use of a tripod and software.
Fashion photography is a genre of photography devoted to displaying clothing and other fashion items. Fashion photography is most often conducted for ads or fashion magazines such as Vogue, Vanity Fair, or Elle. Over time, fashion photography has developed its own aesthetic in which the clothes and fashions are enhanced by the presence of exotic locations or accessories. –Wiki
Portrait photography is photography of a person or group of people that displays the expression, personality, and mood of the subject. Like other types of portraiture, the focus of the photograph is usually the person’s face, although the entire body and the background or context may be included. –Wiki
Glamour photography is a genre of photography in which the subjects, usually female, are portrayed in glamorous ways ranging from fully clothed to nude but in ways that either may conceal or may otherwise not especially draw attention to the subjects nipples and vulva. Glamour photography is typically less explicit than pornography and erotica although the term may also be used as a euphemism for erotic photography.
Aspects of glamour photography may themselves be considered as being glamorous including: glamorous clothing, glamorous accessories and glamorous locations. Comparative terms such as erotic clothing, erotic accessories may be considered to have more sexually focused definitions.
Glamour photography is generally a composed image of a subject in a still position. The subjects of “glamour” photography for professional use are often professional models, and the photographs are normally intended for commercial use, including mass-produced calendars, pinups and men’s magazines such as Maxim; but amateur subjects are also sometimes used, and sometimes the photographs are intended for private and personal use only. Photographers use a combination of cosmetics, lighting and airbrushing techniques to produce an appealing image of the subject. –Wiki
Typically shot in a photographer’s studio or luxury hotel suites, it has become fashionable to create a set of sensual or sexually suggestive images of women in “boudoir style”. The most common manifestation of contemporary boudoir photography is to take variations of candid and posed photographs of the subject partly clothed or in lingerie. Nudity is more often implied than explicit. Commercially the genre is often derived from a market for brides to surprise their future husbands by gifting the images on or before their wedding day. Other motivations or inspiration for boudoir photography shoots include anniversaries, birthdays, Valentine’s Day, weight loss regimes, other form of body change or alteration and for servicemen and women overseas.
Boudoir photography may, in some cases, be distinguished from other photography genres such as glamour photography, fine art nude photography and erotic photography. According to research carried out in Digital Boudoir Photography (2006), John G. Blair said that the word “Boudoir” or “Boudoir portrait”, was used in 1980 by Motherlode Photography Studio in California to describe a picture more elegant than “erotic portrait” or “semi nude portrait”. –Wiki
Tools of Photography: